Unlocking The Secrets of The Standard Model Part 7: The Weak Nuclear Force

Hello again, my lovely readers! As promised, here is today’s post in everybody’s favorite series. Today we will be talking about yet another one of the fundamental forces, and one that has many extremely important implications. I hope you enjoy Unlocking The Secrets of The Standard Model Part 7: The Weak Nuclear Force.

 

The weak nuclear force is one of the fundamental forces of nature. It is the 3rd strongest of the bunch, and is carried by the W and Z bosons. While all of the other forces are busy working on holding things together, the weak nuclear force governs how things fall apart, also known as decay. When a particle has lived out its entire life, it usually dies in a pretty spectacular way, not simply stopping to exist, but distributing its energy and mass equally into smaller particles. This phenomenon is known as decay, and it comes in many forms. Specific particles decay into other set particles. For example, Neutron decay. Neutron decay is one of the most important, and most relevant scientific topics ever discovered. A neutron that exists outside of a nucleus has a very long lifespan, existing for around 10 minutes. In terms of particles, this is an extremely long time. When a neutron has outlived its time, it decays into other particles, usually degrading into a proton, an electron, and an electron anti-neutrino, which is an antimatter particle. Neutron decay, which is a form of beta decay is better known as radioactivity, and is the cause of radioactivity in the first place.

 

The weak nuclear force has a very special property, which is the ability to change the flavor of a quark. Simply put, it has the ability to change one type of quark into another. This helps with the decay of certain particles, and still allows for the conservation of energy. This is especially useful in the processes of stars. A star is able to stay as big and as hot as it is by the process of nuclear fusion. Without the weak nuclear force governing the process, the sun would not be able to fuse in the first place, as no particles would be able to decay into other particles, and photons would be able to be released in the first place.

 

Here comes the fun part that I talked about in my last post: Electroweak theory. The weak nuclear force and the electromagnetic force seem to be two very different forces, doing very different things. Yet this is not true. In fact, above a specific energy level, about 246 GeV, the two forces merge together into one single force, which is commonly referred to as the electroweak force. The reason for this is that the two forces do basically the same thing, but at different magnitudes. The weak nuclear force does its job at quantum levels, and the electromagnetic force tends to stick to macro levels. In fact, during the early moments after the big bang, the two forces were merged into one force, simply because the universe was so hot. This is the basis of electroweak theory.

 

Well everyone, that’s just about it for today’s post. Hope you enjoyed reading it, and stay tuned for the next one!

 

~Zane

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Unlocking The Secrets of The Standard Model Part 6: Electromagnetism

As we progress through this series, the theories and concepts become increasingly difficult and abstract. Though they may seem daunting, the simple solution to this is to read the passage a few times. When I don’t understand something, I like to try to read the context surrounding it, which usually helps me catch a fact that I missed, and helps everything click together. If all else fails, Google is your friend. Sit back, relax, and enjoy Unlocking The Secrets of The Standard Model Part 6: Electromagnetism.

 

So far, we have only covered one of the fundamental forces: gravitation. This time, we will be talking about another force: Electromagnetism. Before we begin, I would encourage you to read my series on gauge bosons, where we talked a bit more in depth about the photon. To put it simply, for the sake of staying concise, the photon is a particle that is the carrier of the electromagnetic force. If you have ever heard of the electromagnetic spectrum, then you should know a thing or two about photons. If not, I would suggest giving it a quick google. Basically, the electromagnetic force is the cause of the two poles of a magnet, and the two charges of particles: negative and positive. If not for the electromagnetic force, particles like the electron and proton would never be attracted to each other.

 

The electromagnetic force is the 2nd strongest of the four fundamental forces. It is extremely powerful both on a quantum and macro scale. Considering the fact that it plays such a fundamental part in particle interaction, we are very lucky that it is as strong as it is. If it was even the tiniest bit weaker, atoms would not be able to stay together, and elements would not be able to bond with one another. This would result in life as we know ceasing to exist. Everything would just sort of float apart.

 

This next point is extremely fun to me, and is one of my absolute favorite things to talk about: The Ultraviolet Catastrophe. Even though it may sound like a really cool action movie title, it is much more than that. It is the culmination of some of the greatest minds in science, and their epic quest to find out why theories about light hadn’t ever worked out mathematically. The theory began with the theorized idea of a “black body.” A black body is a theoretical physical body that can absorb or emit any kind of electromagnetic radiation. The issue with that was that at higher frequencies of light, the black body would emit infinite amounts of radiation, which was simply not possible. This problem was fixed soon after Albert Einstein published his paper titled “The Photoelectric Effect.” Prior to this paper, it was believed that light was solely a wave, and functioned like one, which resulted in the aforementioned issue. To solve this issue, Einstein stated that light was not only a wave, but at the same time a particle. He theorized that in some ways it acted as a wave, and in others it acted as a particle. This later led to the idea of photons, which revolutionized the way that early quantum theory worked.

 

For future reference, there is one theory that I will be talking about after we get acquainted with out next force, which is the weak nuclear force. This theory is known as “electroweak theory,” and is one of the most important, and most complicated theory known to mankind. I will really try to put it simply, but I barely understand it myself. I hope to put out the next post today or tomorrow, but research on electroweak might make that a bit tough. We shall see how it goes.

 

Thanks so much to my loyal readers, and I hope all of you enjoyed Part 5!

 

~Zane

Autistic Point of View – Zane’s First Ebook

Hey everybody, long time no see! Lately, I’ve been working on something huge: my first eBook. I published it a few days ago, and wanted to let everyone here know about it! The eBook is called “Random Sunday Stories” and includes 3 short stories that I wrote. It falls under the genre of fantasy, and is posted through an agregator called “SmashWords.” I worked quite hard on this, and it contains a revised edition of 2 of the short stories I posted on here, and 1 brand new one!

If you are interested, here is a link to check out my eBook, and I’d really appreciate if you would check it out!

Here’s the link: https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/718774

For my viewers, here is a coupon code for getting the book for just $0.99! : EY37U is the code!

And, for the first person to get this coupon, the book is free! Here’s the code: GF52N

Hope you guys enjoy and thanks for the support!

~Zane

The Blessings of Anaros Part 4

Here it is guys, the final chapter. Enjoy the conclusion of “The Blessings of Anaros!”

 

The Blessings of Anaros Part 4

 

Anaros shouldered his pack, and began to head out of the village where he had spent the last 3 months. The villagers didn’t leave their homes, but Anaros began to speak to the villagers anyway. He crushed a Blessing of Speech, and began to address the villagers in their homes.

“Though I hate to leave this village, I feel that I am no longer needed, and my quest pulls me onward. I now leave you in the capable hands of the New Empire’s armies, who may now do as they please since I will be gone. But know this, I will come back, and when I do, the New Empire will be gone, and in its place shall be me, Anaros Atarix, descendant of Falthor Atarix! I now bid you goodbye, and may the gods be with you.” Anaros boomed. As the Blessing of Speech wore off, he turned and left the village. He was finally on the Road to complete his quest, and kill the Emperor.

 

Anaros arrived at the city of Felicise within hours of leaving the village, thanks to his Blessing of Speed. As he approached the massive gates of the city, the guards approached him.

“Papers?” Questioned one of the guards.

“I require no papers, let me through,” Anaros said. The guard warily put one hand on his sheathed sword, and asked Anaros again. Anaros reached into his pouch, and grabbed a Blessing of Strength. He crushed it in his hand, and took an offensive stance, charging the guard head on. Before the guard had the chance to draw his sword, Anaros delivered a bone-shattering punch to his nose, his hand plunging wrist deep into the guard’s face. The guard flew back nearly 100 feet, crashing into the iron gates of the city. Anaros noticed two other guards charging him, and ducked quickly out of the way of the first guards swinging sword. He charged the second guard, and jumped what looked like 15 feet into the air, landing on the guard’s chest, and crushing his ribs with the force of the blow. He used the excess force to catapult himself into the other guard, whipping his foot around and delivering a powerful kick to the guard’s stomach, forcing his body into the iron gate. With a creak, the iron gate opened, and Anaros entered the City.

 

The Emperor’s palace wasn’t hard to find, it stood towering above all of the other buildings in Felicise, its spires covered in sheets of gold, and its gates glittering in the harsh midday sunlight. With one powerful kick, Anaros smashed down the front gate, and fell to the ground with a massive crash. He strode into the castle swiftly, and the guards swarmed around him, encircling him and brandishing weapons. Anaros reached into his pouch, and pulled out a Blessing that none of the guards recognised. This was the source of Anaros’s uniqueness, his ability to create brand new types of Blessings. He crushed the Blessing, and sprinkled it around him in a circle, creating a ring around him. Just as he finished sprinkling the powder, the ground began to glow, and something began to come out of the ground.

“Whoever said I was a one man army?” Anaros said, his question clearly rhetorical.

The ground around him began to shake, and several men appeared in a circle around Anaros. They all held pouches similar to his, and began to attack the guards. In the blink of an eye, all of the guards were dead, and Anaros’s men assembled behind him, marching into the throne room.

 

Anaros burst into the throne room, quickly followed by the other Touched. Anaros was instantly in awe of the beautiful intricacies of the throne room. Its architectural schemes radiated beauty in countless different ways. The walls had been ingrained with deep sheets of gold, glittering diamonds poking out from them, and catching the eye of any who passed. Deep cuts were placed in each of the gold sheets, each of which depicted the Emperor’s glorious battles and triumphs.

“Who dares enter the throne room of Ikthor, Emperor of Narian?” The Emperor boomed, his voice echoing through the halls of the throne room.

“I am Anaros Atarix, descendant of Falthor Atarix.” Anaros replied, his voice steady.

“What is your purpose in disrupting me, foolish boy!” The Emperor yelled, his voice filled with rage.

“I am here to kill you.” Anaros said simply, charging toward the Emperor.

Anaros flew toward the Emperor, his feet carrying him with incredible speed, the likes of which very few people had ever witnessed. He reached into his pouch, and pulled out another new Blessing, this one in the shape of an amorphous blob. It was deep red, and contrasted with the other Blessing that he had, all of which were blindingly white. He jumped through the air, and landed on the Emperor’s throne platform.

“Let this battle begin.” The Emperor said, pulling out a pouch of his own.

Emperor Ikthor crushed three Blessings in his hand, and charged at Anaros with blinding speed. Before Anaros could dodge, Ikthor slammed his fist into his leg, and a sickening snap rang through the halls. Anaros screamed in pain and fell to the ground in a heap. Ikthor then slammed his fist into Anaros’s face, shattering his nose. Anaros slumped to the ground, his vision becoming blurry.

“Over that soon?” Ikthor asked, laughing heartily. “I thought you would put up more of a fight!”

“The point wasn’t to fight you, Emperor, it was to distract you.” Anaros said weakly, a smile on his face.

Ikthor looked around, and saw an assembly of Touched surrounding him, all holding a single red Blessing. They threw the Blessing onto the ground, and held out their hands toward Ikthor. Anaros raised his Blessing as high as he could, and brought it crashing down onto Ikthor’s stomach.

“See you in hell, Ikthor.” Anaros rasped.

Ikthor bellowed in fury as he was whipped into the air, and pulled into a massive spinning vortex that opened in his stomach. Ikthor collapsed into himself, and was sucked into the portal. Anaros was lifted into the air, and began to be pulled into the portal. He looked out on his brethren, and uttered his last words.

“Every hero must make sacrifices to do what he knows is right. Now go forth, and show the world what it means to be free.”

With this, Anaros was pulled into the portal, his bag of Blessings falling to the floor.

 

Wow, this took a while to write! Hope you guys enjoyed this short story, and let me know if you have any ideas for a short story you would like to see in the future. Until next time!

~Zane

Review of “The Hero of Ages” by Brandon Sanderson

This is a spoiler free review for “The Hero of Ages,” assuming you have read “The Well of Ascension.”

 

Brandon Sanderson has done it again, successfully creating the best book that I have ever read. I truly thought that no book could best Mistborn, but “The Hero of Ages” really took the cake. “The Hero of Ages” is the third book in Era 1 of the Mistborn Trilogy, and takes place about a year after the events of book two. Join me as we go over the tour de force that is “The Hero of Ages”.

 

Teaser: The prophecies were true, and showed Vin to be the Hero of Ages. She took the power at the Well, and released it, unwittingly releasing Ruin from his prison. The ash has begun to fall thicker, and the mists have begun killing people. What else could go wrong?

 

The Good: Sanderson continues to follow his pattern of putting together books that knock off the socks of any reader. In the conclusion to the Mistborn trilogy, Sanderson finally answers questions rooted in early chapters, and blows away everything you know with an amazing ending. As expected, this book literally left me crying with joy, and sadness. Be careful of Sanderson though, he likes to toy with your feelings.

 

The Bad: I honestly have no idea what to put here, he simply has such an affinity for writing that I couldn’t find any issues whatsoever.

 

I really don’t know how to handle what just happened, or how I feel about it. All I do know is that I’m going to go read the first book of Era 2, “The Alloy of Law.” I’ve heard Era 2 is “10/10 like Mistborn with guns.” See you guys later, I need to keep reading.
~Zane

The Blessings of Anaros Part 2

Hey everybody, time for part 2! Make sure you check out Part 1 so this makes more sense. Once I get a bit more into writing the story, I’ll post a link to the view the story in its entirety. Enjoy!

 

The Blessings of Anaros Part 2

 

Anaros sat on his bed, sculpting a Blessing of Strength. The blessing took the form of an arm, and was expertly sculpted with the precision of a master. He was holding the Blessing of Speech he had just crafted to his lips, and the Blessing was glowing. While he charged the Blessing, he would have no ability to speak, but when fully charged, his voice would return. Anaros thought back to his first experiences with Blessings, a wisp of a smile flashing across his face. Tired from the long day, he lay down once more, drifting off to sleep.

 

Anaros walked out onto the patio, a bottle of his finest ale in his hand, and his pouch in the other. Anaros had barely sat down in his chair, when he felt a massive weight pushing down on his chest. He struggled to move, but without a Blessing of Strength, he was unable to move. He watched as a figure emerged on the horizon, floating on the air as he approached Anaros. Realizing who was approaching him, Anaros growled with a primal, guttural anger. His head burned with fury, and he forced himself to stand, his body screaming in pain as the weight crushed him downward, forcing him into the ground. With considerable effort, Anaros reached into his pouch, and pulled out three Blessings. He crushed 2 of them, but, strangely enough, he swallowed the third, a small pill-like Blessing. The Blessing of Emotion fueled the fury within him, flooding his body with adrenaline, further fueling the power of the Blessing of Strength. The final Blessing, the Blessing of Awareness, enhanced his ability to think clearly, pushing his mind so far that he had given himself the powers of telekinesis. Using his enhanced abilities, Anaros materialized a small shiv, concealing it underneath his cloak.

“Please Anaros, allow me to help,” said the man, revealing two shimmering swords from under his cloak. “Take this sword, and we can have a fair battle.”

“I told you to never show your face here again, Falthor. You have made a grave mistake coming here, and I will not forgive you for what you have done to these people.” Anaros growled, fury apparent in his voice. Anaros picked up the sword, and charged Falthor, screaming with a primal fury unmatched by anything Falthor had ever seen. He whipped the blade around, bringing a crushing blow down on Falthor’s head. Falthor brought up his blade, parrying the blow with some effort, then jabbed at Anaros’s exposed chest, hoping to catch him off guard. Without even thinking, Anaros feinted to the side, slashing at Falthor, catching his sleeve, and cutting a gash in the man’s arm. Falthor screamed in pain, but continued his barrage. He swung with a mighty fury, keeping Anaros on the defensive. Just as Falthor swung his blade in a perfect arc that should have taken of Anaros’s legs, Anaros jumped, producing his small shiv, and plunging it into Falthor’s back.

“I told you to never show your face here again, Falthor, once you set foot in this village, you had sealed your fate. See you in hell.” Anaros said, a sick smile spreading across his face. He lifted his blade, and plunged it through Falthor’s chest. Falthor spit up blood, and his breathing slowed, then stopped. After so many battles, Falthor was finally dead.

 

I’ll try to post Part 3 later today, but tomorrow at the latest! Stay tuned!

~Zane

The Blessings of Anaros Part 1

As I said the other day, I absolutely love creative writing, so I decided that I’m going to put out a daily piece of creative writing, each one continuing on the last. If you enjoy this, let me know, and I’ll keep doing it! I hope you enjoy Part 1 of “The Blessing of Anaros”

The Blessing Of Anaros Part 1

The man was once a youthful, pride filled, boy, full of vigor and passion. He stood with a straight spine, and commanded an air of importance wherever he went. Very few people had his potential, but no one knew how far he would take things. The New Empire always found people like him, but no one knew why they took them, nor did anyone care to find out. They were too busy trying to provide for their families, trying to stay alive in a ruthless era of boundless starvation. Anaros was somewhat of an…exception.

The man was a beacon of hope for the people of the New Empire. They looked up to him, but no one knew his name. In any other situation, this may have been strange, but not in the grand city of Felicise. In Felicise, it was every man for himself. A few of the people of Felicise knew him, but none of them would speak to him, out of fear of death. The punishment for speaking to someone who had been Touched was horrible, burning at the stake. The New Empire seemed to have a fear of the Touched that went so far that it almost seemed like a reverence. Anaros was one of the Touched, and he displayed it proudly, flaunting it without even knowing he was doing so.

“Anaros,” the voice whispered. “Anaros, wake up! They’re here for us! You have to help us!”

Anaros slowly sat up, and mumbled something unintelligible. He seemed groggy for a moment, only to be wide awake a moment later. The source of the voice was an elderly man, his eyes welling up with tears. Anaros stood up, and grabbed a pouch off the nightstand, hurrying downstairs to see what all of the commotion was about. Men on horses were approaching the house, weapons gleaming in the moonlight. Anaros stepped casually outside, and fished around for something in his pouch. He pulled out a small object in the shape of an eye, and crushed it in his hand, the powder twinkling in the light of the enemies torches. He then reached back in, and pulled out a small object resembling a mouth, and crushed that as well. Anaros opened his mouth to whisper, his voice amplified by the crushed Blessings.

“Stop!” Anaros commanded, his voice so loud that it knocked men from their saddles. “You will come no further, lest you incur the wrath of a God!”

Most of the men ceased their advance, but a few brave souls rode onward, unphased by his incredibly powerful voice. With a shout, Anaros sent a supersonic pressure cloud toward the cavalrymen, disintegrating them completely with the sheer force of his voice.

“Dare anyone else come forward? Leave this village be, and I will not follow you, but if you lay a hand on any of these villagers, I will find you, I will make you wish you were never born. Mark my words now, I am a patient man, and I will be in no rush to end your life in a timely manner.”

With that, the men backed away, no one daring to face Anaros. The people of the village cheered, and Anaros returned to his bedroom, starting in on shaping another blessing. He still had a few more Blessings of Speech, but one could never have too many.

Check in tomorrow for the next piece of the story! See you guys later!

~Zane