Unlocking the Secrets of The Standard Model – Part 2: Leptons

Quantum physics is a scary field. It holds so many answers, and almost none of those are truly understandable by the general public. This results in theories like the idea that CERN and the LHC have “destroyed our universe,” or that “The LHC creates black holes that will kill us all.” This is as much speculation as it is simple ignorance. This is why I chose to write this series: to enlighten the general public about the truths of Quantum Physics, and shed some light on the truths behind the ignorance. Without further adieu, here is part 2 of Unlocking the Secrets of The Standard Model: Leptons.


Leptons are a reclusive bunch. They like to hang out by themselves, and tend to stay away from one another. This is why they hold such prevalence to the field of Quantum Physics. If we can observe some different kind of particles, most of which are either irregular, or try to repel (or annihilate) each other, we can gain some real insights into the world of Quantum Physics. There are 6 different types of leptons that are included in the standard model. Before I cover these different types of leptons, we should first talk about the definition of a lepton, and the definition of a fermion. A fermion is “a subatomic particle, such as a nucleon, that has half-integral spin and follows the statistical description given by Fermi and Dirac.” This simply means that a fermion is any particle with ½ spin, such as quarks, and leptons. In fact, quarks and leptons are the two subcategories of fermions. Since we’ve already covered quarks, we can move on to the definition of a lepton. A lepton is defined as “Any ½ integer spin particle that does not undergo strong interactions.” I will be covering the strong interaction in a later post, so we can ignore that for the moment.


Now that we know what leptons are, we can talk about the six different flavors that we know of. The first 3 that we will cover are the charged leptons. The first charged lepton is the ever-famous electron. Most people know about what an electron is, but since this post is mainly geared toward enlightening others about these things, I will give a brief synopsis. The electron is arguably the most important particle ever discovered. Like all other leptons, it has a half integer spin, and is negatively charged. The electron orbits around the outside of the atomic nucleus, being held in just the right place by the charge of the protons in the center. That’s pretty much the fundamentals of the electron.


The next particle is the muon, which is the second of the charged leptons. A muon is simply a much larger and more unstable electron. It is about 207 times as large as an electron, and holds a similar charge. They mostly produced by cosmic rays, and in particle accelerators. Because they are so massive, the are not produced by normal radioactive decay, unlike most other particles. Muons have no known use to any kind of interaction, other than their strange style of decay.


The final charged lepton is known as the tau, or tauon. The tauon has a negative electrical charge, and, as all other leptons, has a half integer spin. The Tauon again can be thought of as a much larger electron, considering the fact that it is interacts in mostly the same way. The only difference is that the tauon is much, much more massive, and much more deeply penetrating. Tauons also have very strange decay properties, much like those of a muon, but with different particles.


The final 3 leptons are known as neutrinos, and they have no charge. Each of the 3 charged leptons has a neutrino counterpart. The three types of neutrinos are: The electron neutrino, the muon neutrino, and the tau neutrino. A neutrino has no charge, and a near-zero mass, making it extremely hard to detect without the right kind of equipment or experiment. The most common way that neutrinos are produced is in the decay of other particles, specifically the particles that each neutrino is named after. Each neutrino is produced either in a star, in some kind of cosmic reaction, or in particle decay.


That covers all of the leptons! If you have any questions, suggestion, or feedback, feel free to let me know! Stay with us as the wonderful world of Quantum Physics is rediscovered, one piece at a time!



Philosophy Rant

Hey guys! I’ve been thinking a lot about philosophy lately, and I wanted to give some of you an idea of what I’ve been pondering.


One of my favorite philosophical concepts is that of the “Golden Mean.” This theory was developed by first by Aristotle, who stated an objection to the original idea of good and evil being opposites. In almost every aspect of our culture, it is made apparent that there is good, which is moral and correct, and evil, which is immoral and wrong. Even ancient literature states this, most notably the bible, stating that God and Satan are opposites, one standing for all thing moral, and the other all things immoral, respectively. This is a simple fact of culture, with the only deviation being that of a moral “gray area,” which does not necessarily lean one way or the other.


Aristotle decided that he objected to that idea, and instead came up with the Golden Mean. He stated that good and evil were not opposites, but rather a spectrum. If one were to imagine a sandwich (yum), one could picture evil as two pieces of bread on either side, and good being the Golden Mean in the middle. On one side, we have the idea of deficiency, one of the evils of the world. One the other side, we have excess, another one of the evils manifested in the world. Of course, in the center, we have a balance of the two, creating a Golden Mean, which combines both aspects.


A way to create an example of this spectrum is to pick a positive, balanced virtue, and scale it accordingly, first to deficiency, then to excess. For this example, we will choose an inherently good virtue: generosity. In a balanced form, generosity includes ideas that pertain to giving to the needy, sharing with others, etc. When one deficient of generosity, they become stingy, and unwilling to share with others. Yet in excess, generosity becomes extravagance, and wastefulness. This is true of any virtue that is moral and righteous. Since good and evil is a subjective ideal, it is impossible to determine a single theory to be true. Such is the nature of philosophy.


I hope this at least somewhat interested you guys. This post was really fun to write, so it was pretty easy for me to rant about it, especially with the subject being so interesting. Stay tuned for more philosophy stuff, and maybe I can even make it into a running series.



Random Astrophysics Theory Idea

Today, I have an interesting post idea, one that will hopefully make up for my long silence. Today, I will be presenting a theory that I have been working one. I may only be 17 years old, and relatively ill-informed when it comes to astrophysics, but I want my readers to try to take me seriously for a moment, as I present a theory that I have come up with.


The formation of a neutron star, and even stellar black holes is common knowledge in the scientific world. Yet one thing is still unknown: how a supermassive black hole forms, and what it takes for a star to become one. When it comes to stellar black holes, the common theory is that the star runs out of fuel, and its own gravity causes it to collapse in on itself. But could it be possible that something entirely different happens in the formation of supermassive black hole? Something that was previously thought to be impossible?


My theory states that supermassive black holes form from the same thing that most stellar black holes form from: a massive star. As a star ages, it begins to use larger and larger elements as its fuel, until it eventually runs out, or can no longer burn what it needs to without outside energy, causing it to collapse on itself. I believe that the same thing happens in a supermassive black hole, except for one small change. Instead of trying to fuse something like iron, the core undergoes some kind of drastic change, causing it to begin trying to fuse a much more massive element.


Currently, 118 different elements have been discovered, the heaviest of which only being created in super-colliders and laboratories. Yet could it be possible for a star to undergo some kind of strange event, causing its core to begin to form some kind of unknown or exotic element, one which is too large and unstable to created on earth? If this were possible, the star would surely collapse in on itself, the sheer mass of the super large elements causing the star to give off insane amounts of gravitational pull. In turn, this would create an enormous black hole, one which would consume surrounding stellar nebulae, and other stars, resulting in a supermassive black hole.


I doubt that this theory is even possible, but it’s been on my mind for quite a while, and I wanted to put it down on paper. The fact that the core of a star would have to undergo such a massive change to convert itself from iron to some other exotic, massive element makes it extremely implausible, but still possible. I’ll try to do more research, but the math required sets quite a few limits on my ability to comprehend anything having to do with this subject. Stay tuned for more info.



Autistic Point of View – Zane’s First Ebook

Hey everybody, long time no see! Lately, I’ve been working on something huge: my first eBook. I published it a few days ago, and wanted to let everyone here know about it! The eBook is called “Random Sunday Stories” and includes 3 short stories that I wrote. It falls under the genre of fantasy, and is posted through an agregator called “SmashWords.” I worked quite hard on this, and it contains a revised edition of 2 of the short stories I posted on here, and 1 brand new one!

If you are interested, here is a link to check out my eBook, and I’d really appreciate if you would check it out!

Here’s the link: https://www.smashwords.com/books/view/718774

For my viewers, here is a coupon code for getting the book for just $0.99! : EY37U is the code!

And, for the first person to get this coupon, the book is free! Here’s the code: GF52N

Hope you guys enjoy and thanks for the support!


Autistic Point of View – Current Event Analysis

Our world is full of messed up people, with messed up intentions. I have seen some pretty awful crimes in my day, and I have seen messed up intentions. But what I just read about isn’t as much messed up as it is confusing. One man in the Dallas area decided for god-knows-why to set off all of the emergency sirens in Dallas at 11:40 PM. The crime wasn’t heinous, nor was it necessarily evil, it was just downright strange. For what reason would someone want to set off the emergency tornado sirens late at night? For a prank? All it did was cause some panic in some of the residents, and then got shut off quickly after. Here’s my analysis on the situation.


How did he do it?: To be able to hack a security system with such a high level of encryption would be virtually impossible. The only way to do something like that would be to A. Have the encryption codes for the system, or B. Have a way to decrypt the codes faster than they were being changed. Encryption codes at a federal level are extremely impressive. They go so far as to literally change their encryption type as fast as every 30 seconds. This would mean that the person hacking the system would have to literally decrypt the code to the alarm system, and send a signal with the same encryption codes within 30 seconds. This is no small feat, and it would take a very powerful computer to get it done. Most likely, the person used some kind of apparatus to obtain the encrypted messages going through the airways, which in and of itself is extremely hard, then break the codes in a matter of 30 seconds. That basically rules out the possibility of someone on the outside breaking the codes. That would mean that either A. The alarm sirens going off was a test, or B. Someone who already had the codes would have to send a message to the sirens to go off. Considering that all of the sirens do not run off of the same encryption codes, someone definitely had access to the codes prior to the hacking.


Why did he do it?: I think that our culprit did it to cause panic. Many people enjoy creating fear in others, especially if it eases the fear that they are experiencing. Most likely, the person who committed the crime did it to prove a point, maybe to show how easy it is to hack these systems, when, in reality, it isn’t easy at all. Whatever the intention, our culprit most likely did it for the reason of creating panic.


Who did it?: Police officers and federal agents alike have a common method for profiling a culprit. The first step is to list the possible intentions. Most likely, there are 3 different possibilities for the intention of the culprit. A. The culprit wanted to prove a point, B. The culprit wanted to demonstrate something, or C. The culprit wanted to send a message. The most likely possibility is that the culprit wanted to send a message. The sirens going off is almost saying “Hey, look how easy it is to do this! If I can do this, who’s to stop others from doing worse things?!” This narrows down the category to people that are not in good standing with the government, or people who dislike some of the systems of security that the government produces. This means that it would not be hard to find a few people who would want to commit a crime like that. Then, all it takes is pinging a message off of their computers, and finding who committed the crime in the first place.


This is my basic analysis of what exactly went down in Dallas, and why someone would do something like that. Overall, it was a bit of a weird thing to do, and now the culprit will be facing federal charges.

You guys can check out the story here.


The Blessings of Anaros Part 3

Whew, I’m really posting a lot today! As promised, here is Part 3 of “The Blessings of Anaros!” Hope you enjoy.


The Blessings of Anaros Part 3


Anaros stood over Falthor’s dead corpse, reveling in his success. He couldn’t help but be pleased with himself for what he had done. He had slain his greatest enemy! So why did he feel so strange? He felt so…distant, so unwhole. The people of the village were staring at him, their faces full of terror. Why couldn’t they understand what he did was right? By slaying Falthor, he had freed the people of this village, freeing them from the fear that had permeated their entire lives. Ever since Falthor left, all Anaros could think about was killing him, bringing him to justice. Yet the people of the village regarded him with…fear. Whispers followed him all the way home, the people of the village speaking out against him. Monster. Heretic. Murderer. They had seen him kill men before, but why did this one death, the death of their enemy, bother them so much?

Anaros arrived home, but the house was empty, none of his friends came to congratulate him. He simply couldn’t grasp why they hated him so much, and why him killing Falthor bothered them so much. All he had ever done was help them, all he had ever done was save them again and again. Yet now, all of the times he had killed someone, they hated him. Anaros stormed into his bedroom, and gathered his things. It was time to move on, it was time to leave this place behind, and continue his journey. He packed everything away, put on his overcoat, and tied his pouch to his belt. He descended the stairs, grabbing some necessary food items, and opened the front door. He was not expecting what happened next, nor was he expecting any of the villagers to even come near him. Standing before him was the entire village, armed with weapons, with looks of fear in their eyes.

“Anaros, in the name of the New Empire, you are under arrest for the murder of Falthor Atarix. Resist, and we will kill you.” Said the first man, standing at the head of the group.

Since when had they pledged their allegiance to the New Empire? Everything that was happening was so confusing…so wrong. He tried to step forward, but the soldier stopped him, shoving him to the ground. Anaros was never one for controlling himself, and was prone to violent emotional outbursts.

“Soldier, you know not what you have done. You have angered me, and for that, I plan to kill you. Yet I am a fair man, and I plan to give you a chance to fight me. If you accept, I will leave these villagers alone, but if you refuse, I will slaughter them all, right before your eyes. Then I will strike you down where you stand. Do you accept?” Anaros said, his voice wrought with anger.

“Yes Anaros, I do. I will end your life here and now, for challenging a soldier of the New Empire is a crime that is unforgivab-” The soldier began, only to be cut off by Anaros’s sword plunging through his throat, spraying blood in all directions.

“I grow tired of your rambling, soldier,” Anaros said, his voice steady.

“Heed my voice, soldiers of the New Empire, I grow displeased with your actions. No number of soldiers can strike me down, and no army can withstand my barrage. Anyone who objects may step forward now, or forever hold your peace.” Anaros said, annoyance rising in his voice.

One of the soldiers stepped forward to confront Anaros, but was met with hostility, as Anaros threw a small bronze dagger at him. Before the man had time to react, the dagger was upon him, burying itself hilt deep in his left eye. He fell to the floor writhing in pain, his screams formed from pure, unadulterated agony. Blood spilled down his face, his screams subsiding as he felt into the cold embrace of death.

“Anyone else?” Anaros said gleefully, a smile on his face. No one responded.

“Good, I will now take my leave,” Anaros said, entering the house and closing the door behind him.


That’s all folks, peace!



Review of “The Hero of Ages” by Brandon Sanderson

This is a spoiler free review for “The Hero of Ages,” assuming you have read “The Well of Ascension.”


Brandon Sanderson has done it again, successfully creating the best book that I have ever read. I truly thought that no book could best Mistborn, but “The Hero of Ages” really took the cake. “The Hero of Ages” is the third book in Era 1 of the Mistborn Trilogy, and takes place about a year after the events of book two. Join me as we go over the tour de force that is “The Hero of Ages”.


Teaser: The prophecies were true, and showed Vin to be the Hero of Ages. She took the power at the Well, and released it, unwittingly releasing Ruin from his prison. The ash has begun to fall thicker, and the mists have begun killing people. What else could go wrong?


The Good: Sanderson continues to follow his pattern of putting together books that knock off the socks of any reader. In the conclusion to the Mistborn trilogy, Sanderson finally answers questions rooted in early chapters, and blows away everything you know with an amazing ending. As expected, this book literally left me crying with joy, and sadness. Be careful of Sanderson though, he likes to toy with your feelings.


The Bad: I honestly have no idea what to put here, he simply has such an affinity for writing that I couldn’t find any issues whatsoever.


I really don’t know how to handle what just happened, or how I feel about it. All I do know is that I’m going to go read the first book of Era 2, “The Alloy of Law.” I’ve heard Era 2 is “10/10 like Mistborn with guns.” See you guys later, I need to keep reading.